Understanding Service Workers

What are Service Workers? What can they do, and how can make your web app perform better? This article sets out to answer those questions, plus how to implement them using the Ember.js framework.

Table of Contents


In a time when the web was young, there was scarcely any thought given to how a web page should behave when a user was offline. You were just always online.


Connected! The gang's all here! Don't ever leave.

But with the advent of mobile internet, and with the rest of the world catching up, spotty internet connections have become increasingly commonplace across users of the modern web.

Consequently, it has become valuable for websites to take ownership of how they behave offline so that users are not limited by network availability.

AppCache was initially introduced as part of the HTML5 spec as a solution for offline web applications. It consisted of a combination of HTML and JS that centered around a cache manifest, a configuration file written in a declarative language.

AppCache was eventually found to be unwieldy and full of gotchas. It has since been deprecated and effectively replaced by Service Workers.

Service workers provide a more future-proof solution to the offline problem, by replacing AppCache's declarative style of implementation with a more imperative, procedural one.

Service Workers are a way to execute code in a persistent, background process contained in the web browser. The code is event-driven, meaning the events that fire in the scope of a Service Worker are what drives its behavior.

The rest of this article is a brief explanation for each of those events. But to begin utilizing Service Workers, you will first need to implement code in your front-facing web app that registers the Service Worker.


The code below illustrates how to register your Service Worker in the client's browser. This is accomplished by having the following register call executed somewhere on your front-facing web app:

if (navigator.serviceWorker) {  
    .then(registration => {
      console.log('congrats. scope is: ', registration.scope);
    .catch(error => {
      console.log('sorry', error);

This will tell the browser where to find your Service Worker implementation. The browser will look for the file (/sw.js) and save it as a Service Worker under the domain that is being accessed. This file will contain all of the event handlers that will define your Service Worker.

A registered Service Worker in Chrome DevTools

It will also set the scope of your ServiceWorker. The filename /sw.js implies that the scope of the SW is the root path of your URL (or http://localhost:3000/). This means any requests that are made under the root path of your URL will be made visible to the SW via fired events. A filename such as /js/sw.js would capture requests only under http://localhost:3000/js.

Alternatively, you could explicitly set the scope of your SW by passing a second argument to the register method:
navigator.serviceWorker.register('/sw.js', { scope: '/js' }).

Event Handlers

Now that your Service Worker is registered, it's time to implement the event handlers that are triggered during the lifetime of your Service Worker.

Install Event

The install event is fired when your Service Worker registers for the first time, and any time after that when your Service Worker file (/sw.js) is updated (the browser will automatically detect changes).

The install event is useful for logic you want to execute during the initialization of your Service Worker, i.e. a one-off operation that sets things up for the life of your Service Worker. A common use case is to load the cache during the install step.

Here is an example of an install event handler that will add data to the cache.

const CACHE_NAME = 'cache-v1';  
const urlsToCache = [  

self.addEventListener('install', event => {  
    .then(cache => {
      return cache.addAll(urlsToCache);

urlsToCache contains a list of URLs we want to add to the cache.

caches is a global CacheStorage object that allows you to manage your caches in the browser. We call open to retrieve the specific Cache object we want to work with.

cache.addAll will take a list of URLs, make a request to each, and then store the response in its cache. It uses the request body as a key for each cache value. Read more at the addAll docs.

Cached data in Chrome DevTools

Fetch event

The fetch event is fired every time the web page makes a request. When it fires, your Service Worker has the ability to 'intercept' the request and decide what to return - whether that be cached data, or the response to an actual network request.

The following example illustrates a cache-first strategy: any cached data that matches the request will be sent off first, without a network request. Only if there is no existing cached data will a network request be made.

self.addEventListener('fetch', event => {  
  const { request } = event;
  const findResponsePromise = caches.open(CACHE_NAME)
    .then(cache => cache.match(request))
    .then(response => {
      if (response) {
        return response;

      return fetch(request);


request contains the request body that is included in the FetchEvent object. It is used to lookup a matching response in the cache.

cache.match will try to find a cached response that matches the specified request. If it finds nothing, the promise will resolve with undefined. We check for this, and make a fetch call in this case, which makes a network request and returns a promise.

event.respondWith is a method specifically on a FetchEvent object that we use to send a response back to the browser for the request. It accepts a Promise that resolves to a response (or network error).

Caching Strategies

The fetch event is particularly important because it's where you can define your caching strategy. That is, how you determine when to use cached data, and when to use network-sourced data.

The beauty in Service Workers is that it is a low-level API for intercepting requests and lets you decide what response to provide for them. This allows us the freedom to implement our own strategy for providing cached or network-sourced content. There are several basic caching strategies that you could employ when trying to implement the best one for your web app.

Mozilla has a handy resource that documents several different caching strategies. There is also The Offline Cookbook written by Jake Archibald that outlines some of the same caching strategies, and more.

In an above example, we demonstrated a basic cache-first strategy. The following is an example which I've found applicable in my own projects: a cache and update strategy. This method will let the cache respond first, but subsequently make a network request in the background. The response from this background request is used to update the value in the cache so that an updated response is provided the next time it is accessed.

self.addEventListener('fetch', event => {  
  const { request } = event;

    .then(cache => cache.match(request))
    .then(matching => matching || fetch(request)));

    .then(cache => fetch(request)
      .then(response => cache.put(request, response))));

event.respondWith is used to provide a response to the request. Here we are opening the cache and finding a matching response. If it doesn't exist, we reach out to the network.

Subsequently, we call event.waitUntil to allow the async Promise to resolve before the Service Worker context is terminated. Here we make a network request, and then cache the response. Once this asynchronous operation is finished, waitUntil will resolve and the operation will terminate.

Activate Event

The activate event is a slightly less documented event, but is important for when you are updating your Service Worker file and need to execute any clean up or maintenance from the previous version of your Service worker.

When you update your Service Worker file (/sw.js), the browser will detect changes and display this in Chrome DevTools:

Your new Service Worker is 'waiting to activate'.

When the actual web page is closed, and re-opened again, the browser will replace the old Service Worker with the new one, and fire the activate event, after the install event. If you needed to clean up the caches or perform maintenance regarding the old version of your Service Worker, the activate event allows you the perfect time to do this.

Sync event

The sync event allows the deferring of network tasks until the user has connectivity. The feature it implements is commonly referred to as background sync. This is useful for ensuring that any network-dependent tasks that a user kicks off during offline mode will eventually reach their intended destination when the network is available again.

Here is an example of what a background sync implementation would look like. You'll need code in your front-facing JS that registers a sync event, accompanied by a sync event handler in your Service Worker:

// app.js
  .then(registration => {
    document.getElementById('submit').addEventListener('click', () => {
      registration.sync.register('submit').then(() => {
        console.log('sync registered!');

Here we are assigning a click event to a button that will call sync.register on the ServiceWorkerRegistration object.

Basically, any operation that you want to ensure reaches the network either immediately or eventually when the network comes online, needs to be registered as a sync event.

This could be something like POSTing a comment, or fetching user data, which will be defined in the Service Worker's event handler:

// sw.js
self.addEventListener('sync', event => {  
  if (event.tag === 'submit') {

Here we are listening for a sync event, and checking for the tag on the SyncEvent object to see if it matches the 'submit' tag we specified for the click event.

If multiple sync's under the 'submit' tag are registered, the sync event handler will only execute once.

So for this example, if the user were offline, and clicked the button seven times, when the network returned, all sync registrations would consolidate and the sync event would fire just once.

In the case you would want separate syncs for each click event, you would register syncs under unique tags.

When is the Sync Event fired?

If the user is online, then the sync event will fire immediately and accomplish whatever task you've defined without delay.

If the user is offline, the sync event will fire as soon as network connectivity is regained.

If you're like me, and want to try this out in Chrome, be sure to actually disconnect your internet by disabling your Wi-Fi or otherwise network adapter. Toggling the Network checkbox in Chrome DevTools will not trigger sync events.

For more information, you can read this explainer document, as well as this introduction to background syncs. The sync event is largely unimplemented across browsers (only in Chrome at the time of this writing), and is bound to undergo changes, so stay tuned.

Push Notifications

Push notifications are a feature that are enabled by Service Workers by exposing the push event to Service Workers, as well as the Push API implemented by the browser.

When speaking about Web Push Notifications, there are actually two technologies at work: Notifications & Push Messaging.


Notifications are pretty straightforward feature to implement with Service Workers:

// app.js
// ask for permission
Notification.requestPermission(permission => {  
  console.log('permission:', permission);

// display notification
function displayNotification() {  
  if (Notification.permission == 'granted') {
      .then(registration => {
        registration.showNotification('this is a notification!');
// sw.js
self.addEventListener('notificationclick', event => {  
  // notification click event

self.addEventListener('notificationclose', event => {  
  // notification closed event

You first need to ask permission from the user to enable notifications for your web page. From then on, you are able to toggle on notifications, and handle certain events, such as when a notification is closed by the user.

Push Messaging

Push messaging involves utilizing the Push API provided by the browser, coupled with backend implementation. An entirely separate article could be written on the implementation of Push API, but the basic gist is:

Push API Diagram

It is an involved and slightly complicated process, and is outside the scope of this article. But if you'd like to learn more, this introduction to push notifications is an informative read.

Implementing Using Ember.js

Implementing Service Workers for your Ember app is incredibly easy. By virtue of ember-cli and the Ember Add-ons community, you can equip your web app with Service Workers in plug-and-play fashion.

This is made possible in part by the ember-service-worker add-on, provided by the folks at DockYard (docs here).

ember-service-worker sets up a modular architecture that can be used to plug in other ember-service-worker-* add-ons, such as ember-service-worker-index or ember-service-worker-asset-cache. These add-ons implement different parts of behavior and caching strategies to make up your Service Worker.

Understanding ember-service-worker conventions

All of the ember-service-worker-* add-ons follow a convention, in that their core logic is stored in one of two folders in the root directory of the add-on, /service-worker and /service-worker-registration:

├── ...
├── package.json
├── service-worker
    └── index.js
└── service-worker-registration
    └── index.js

/service-worker is where the main implementation of your Service Worker is located (what you would store in sw.js as shown earlier).

/service-worker-registration holds the logic you need to run in your front-facing code, where Service Worker registration would take place.

Let's take a look at the /service-worker implementation for ember-service-worker-index (code here) to divulge what it actually does:

import {  
} from 'ember-service-worker-index/service-worker/config';

import { urlMatchesAnyPattern } from 'ember-service-worker/service-worker/url-utils';  
import cleanupCaches from 'ember-service-worker/service-worker/cleanup-caches';

const CACHE_KEY_PREFIX = 'esw-index';  

const INDEX_HTML_URL = new URL(INDEX_HTML_PATH, self.location).toString();

self.addEventListener('install', (event) => {  
    fetch(INDEX_HTML_URL, { credentials: 'include' }).then((response) => {
      return caches
        .then((cache) => cache.put(INDEX_HTML_URL, response));

self.addEventListener('activate', (event) => {  
  event.waitUntil(cleanupCaches(CACHE_KEY_PREFIX, CACHE_NAME));

self.addEventListener('fetch', (event) => {  
  let request = event.request;
  let isGETRequest = request.method === 'GET';
  let isHTMLRequest = request.headers.get('accept').indexOf('text/html') !== -1;
  let isLocal = new URL(request.url).origin === location.origin;
  let scopeExcluded = urlMatchesAnyPattern(request.url, INDEX_EXCLUDE_SCOPE);

  if (isGETRequest && isHTMLRequest && isLocal && !scopeExcluded) {
      caches.match(INDEX_HTML_URL, { cacheName: CACHE_NAME })

Without getting bogged down in the details, we can see that this code is basically implementing three of the event handlers we've talked about: install, activate and fetch.

In the install event handler, we are fetching INDEX_HTML_URL, and then calling cache.put to store the response.

activate does some rudimentary clean up.

In the fetch handler, we are checking to see if request meets several conditions (is it a GET request; is it asking for HTML; is it local; etc.) and if it satisfies those conditions, we respond with what is stored in the cache.

Notice we're calling cache.match and using INDEX_HTML_URL to look up the value, and not request.url. This means we'd always look up the same cache key, no matter what the actual URL is.

This is because an Ember app will always render using index.html. Any URL requests that are under the root URL of the app will end up with a cached version of index.html, where the Ember app would normally take over. That is the purpose of ember-service-worker-index - to cache index.html.

Similarly, ember-service-worker-asset-cache will cache all the assets found in the /assets folder by implementing its own install and fetch event handlers.

There are several add-ons that employ ember-service-worker architecture and allow you to customize and fine tune your Service Worker's behavior and caching strategies.

Build your Ember App w/ Service Workers

First, you'll need ember-cli installed. Then execute the following commands:

$ ember new new-app
$ cd new-app
$ ember install ember-service-worker
$ ember install ember-service-worker-index
$ ember install ember-service-worker-asset-cache

Your app is now serviced by Service Workers and by default will have index.html and /assets/**/* cached.

You can fine tune what files under the /assets folder will get cached via config/environment.js.

If you find that none of the existing ember-service-worker add-ons solve your problem, you can create your own following the docs at the ember-service-worker website.


I hope you have gained a firmer understanding of Service Workers, and their underlying architecture, and also how web apps can utilize them to create a better experience for users.

ember-service-worker add-ons allow you implement them easily in your Ember.js web app. If you find that you need to implement your own logic for a Service Worker, it should be easy to create your own add-on that implements the event handlers you need to implement the behavior you want. This is something I'd like to tackle in the near future, so stay tuned!

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